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Basic Facts

Basic Number Facts

Basic number combinations for addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are known as number facts. Basic number facts are the foundation on which all mathematical computation is based.

Effortless and quick retrieval of number combinations reduces cognitive load and allows for cognitive resources to be directed to higher order mathematical processes such as estimation, complex computation, word problem solving, and algebra. 

 Fact Families and Inverse Mathematical Relationships

Fact families demonstrate the relationship between a set of numbers. They may also be used to represent the inverse relationship between operations. The four main mathematical operations are addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The inverse of addition is subtraction (and vice versa) and the inverse of multiplication is division (and vice versa). Knowing the inverse relationships between addition and subtraction, and between multiplication and division, equips students with greater flexibility in working with numbers.


8 + 6 = 14         6 + 8 = 14                   14 - 8 = 6          14 - 6 = 8   

2 x 7 = 14          7 x 2 = 14                   14 ÷ 2 = 7         1÷ 7 = 2